MONTEFIORE, SIR MOSES (1784–1885), most famous Anglo-Jew of the 19th century. Montefiore was born in Leghorn while his parents were on a visit from London, where he was brought up, being taught elementary Hebrew by his maternal uncle Moses mocatta . First apprenticed to a firm of wholesale grocers and tea merchants, he left to become one of the 12 "Jew brokers" in the City of London. After initial setbacks, he went into partnership with his brother Abraham, and the firm acquired a high reputation. His marriage in 1812 to Judith Cohen (see judith montefiore ) made him brother-in-law of Nathan Mayer rothschild , for whom his firm acted as stockbrokers. After his retirement from regular business in 1824, though he retained various commercial directorships, he had the time and the fortune to undertake communal and civic responsibilities. Contrary to accepted opinion, he was apparently somewhat lax in religious observance in earlier life; but from 1827, after his first visit to Ereẓ Israel, until the end of his life, he was a strictly observant Jew. Montefiore maintained his own synagogue on his estate at Ramsgate from 1833 and in later years traveled with his own shoḥet. His determined opposition checked the growth of the Reform movement in England. Though a patron of scholars, he had no pretensions to scholarship himself. He paid seven visits to Ereẓ Israel, the last in 1874. In 1838 his scheme for acquiring land to enable Jews in Ereẓ Israel to become self-supporting through agriculture was frustrated when Mehmet Ali, viceroy of Egypt, who had shown sympathy for the idea, was forced by the great powers to give up his conquests from the Turks. He later attempted to bring industry to the country, introducing a printing press and a textile factory, and inspired the founding of several agricultural colonies. The Yemin Moshe quarter outside the Old City of Jerusalem was due to his endeavors and named after him. In 1855, by the will of judah touro , the U.S. philanthropist, he was appointed to administer a bequest of $50,000 for Jews of the Holy Land. Montefiore was sheriff of London in 1837–38 and was knighted by Queen Victoria on her first visit to the City. He received a baronetcy in 1846 in recognition of his humanitarian efforts on behalf of his fellow Jews. Although president of the board of deputies of british jews from 1835 to 1874 (with only one brief interruption), he did not, after the early years, play a prominent part in the emancipation struggle but devoted himself to helping oppressed Jewries overseas. He has been described as the last of the shtadlanim who by their personal standing with their governments were able to further the cause of Jews elsewhere. He was active as such from the time of the damascus affair in 1840. In 1846, he visited Russia to persuade the authorities to alleviate persecution of the Jewish population, and went to morocco in 1863 and romania in 1867 for the same purpose. His intervention in the mortara case in 1855, however, proved a failure. Some of his achievements appear in retrospect as transitory. Although in 1872, after representing the Board of Deputies at the bicentenary celebrations of Peter the Great, he reported that a new age had dawned for the Jews of Russia, persecution was renewed in 1881. Lover of Ereẓ Israel though he was and believer in the messianic restoration of a Jewish state, he did not conceive of large-scale, planned development of the country as a solution to the Jewish problem. This was largely because Montefiore (and his contemporaries) trusted absolutely in the inevitability of progress and with it worldwide emancipation for the Jews. Nevertheless, both in his own lifetime and since, he enjoyed enormous prestige. Montefiore's physical presence (he was 6 ft. 3 in. tall), his commanding personality, his philanthropy, and his complete disinterestedness, made him highly respected and admired both in England and abroad. The support of the British government for his activities – consonant with British policies overseas – and the personal regard shown him by Queen Victoria added to his reputation. His 100th birthday was celebrated as a public holiday by Jewish communities the world over. One of the most famous Jews of the 19th century, Moses Montefiore was important for many different reasons, for instance as an early, influential Zionist. His most significant role, however, might have been as arguably the template of a wealthy, influential, well-connected Jew in a Western democracy, who used his influence to ameliorate the condition of persecuted Jews in countries where antisemitism was rife. This model of Jewish leadership has persisted, perhaps as the norm, into our own times. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Roth, Mag Bibl, 140–6; Lehmann, Nova Bibl, 109, 112, 117; L. Wolf, Sir Moses Montefiore (1885, Eng.); L. Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, 2 vols. (1890); P. Goodman, Moses Montefiore (1925, Eng.); S.U. Nahon, Sir Moses Montefiore (Eng. 1965). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. and V.D. Lipman (eds.), The Century of Moses Montefiore (1985); G. Alderman, Modern British Jewry, index; W.D. Rubinstein, Jews in Great Britain, index; D.S. Katz, Jewsin England, 336–40, index; T. Endelman, Jews of Britain, index. (Vivian David Lipman)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Montefiore, Sir Moses — (1784–1885)    Anglo Jewish leader. In the Victorian era, Europeans in distress would turn to powerful, democratic and liberal England. For persecuted Jews, there was a further reason for doing so, in the person of Sir Moses Montefiore, the… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Montefiore, Sir Moses — (1784 1885)    Born in Italy and died in England, he was a major benefactor of early Zionist settlement of Palestine. A member of a wealthy Sephardic (see ORIENTAL JEWS) family, he was brought to England in infancy and rose to become one of… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • MONTEFIORE, SIR MOSES —    a philanthropic Jewish banker, born in Leghorn; a friend to the emancipation not only of the oppressed among his own race, but of the slave in all lands; lived to a great age (1784 1885) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Montefiore, Sir Moses, Baronet — ▪ British philanthropist born Oct. 24, 1784, Livorno, Italy died July 28, 1885, near Ramsgate, Kent, Eng.       outstanding Jewish philanthropist.       Scion of an old Italian Jewish merchant family, Montefiore was taken to England as an infant …   Universalium

  • Sir Moses Montefiore Home — The Sir Moses Montefiore Jewish Home provides residential elderly care facilities in Hunters Hill and Woollahra with a further facility being constructed in Randwick. The home is named after Sir Moses Haim Montefiore.The home seeks to enhance the …   Wikipedia

  • MONTEFIORE, SEBAG-MONTEFIORE — MONTEFIORE, SEBAG MONTEFIORE, English family originating from Leghorn, Italy. (See Chart: Montefiore Family 1, 2, and 3). The first to come to England were the brothers MOSES VITA (1712–1789), who set up successfully as an importer of Italian… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Montefiore — Montefiōre, Sir Moses, Bankier in London, geb. 24. Okt. 1784 in Livorno, bekannt durch aufopfernde und erfolgreiche Vertretung seiner israel. Glaubensgenossen in Palästina, Rußland etc., 1846 Baronet, gest. 28. Juli 1885 in Ramsgate …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Moses Montefiore — For other uses, see Montefiore (disambiguation). Sir Moses H. Montefiore Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, Kt (24 October 1784 28 July 1885) was one of the most famous British Jews of the 19th century. Montefiore was a financier, banker,… …   Wikipedia

  • Moses Montefiore — Moïse Montefiore Pour les articles homonymes, voir Montefiore. Sir Moses Haïm Montefiore (Livourne, 24 octobre 1784 – Ramsgate, 28 juillet 1885), fut l un des plus célèbres juifs anglais du XIXe siècle, à l instar de Benjamin Disraeli.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Moses Montefiore — an seinem 100. Geburtstag, 1884 Sir Moses Montefiore (auch: Montefiori) (* 24. Oktober 1784 in Livorno, Italien; † 28. Juli 1885 in Ramsgate, Kent) war ein britischer Unternehmer und sephardisch …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.